Estudio y caracterización de cepas de parvovirus canino en España

  1. PENELO HIDALGO, SILVIA
Supervised by:
  1. María Isabel Simarro Fernández Director
  2. Gloria Santurde Sánchez Director

Defence university: Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Fecha de defensa: 22 January 2016

Committee:
  1. A. Sainz Chair
  2. Cinta Prieto Suárez Secretary
  3. Eduardo Yus Respaldiza Committee member
  4. Ana María Carvajal Urueña Committee member
  5. Ricardo Villares García Committee member
Department:
  1. Sanidad Animal

Type: Thesis

Abstract

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the etiological agent of a severe gastroenteritis of dogs. CPV is an small, non-enveloped, single stranded DNA genome virus. The genome contain two open reading frame (ORF), that encodes 2 structural proteins (VP1 y VP2) and another 2 non-structural proteins (NS1 and NS2). Parvovirus capsids are highly antigenic and play major roles in determining viral host ranges and tissue tropisms. The virus is very similar to feline panleukopenia (also a parvovirus); they are 98% identical, differing only in two amino acids in the viral capsid protein VP2. It is also highly similar to mink enteritis, and the parvoviruses of raccoons and foxes. It is suggested that CPV2 can be a mutant of an unidentified parvovirus derived from feline parvovirus (FLPV) of from some wild carnivore. CPV-2 emerged in late 1970s causing severe outbreaks in kennels, veterinary hospitals and dog shelters worldwide. Soon after its emergence, CPV-2 gave rise to two antigenic variants, CPV-2a and CPV-2b, which replaced progressively the original type. In 2000, a new antigenic variant, CPV-2c, was first detected in Italy and several studies indicated that it rapidly spread to several countries. The antigenic variants differ from the original type CPV-2 for a few amino acids in the VP2 protein, whereas genetic differences among the variants are determined only by residue 426, with types 2a, 2b, and 2c displaying Asn, Asp, and Glu, respectively. In comparison to the original type CPV-2, the antigenic variants seem to increase pathogenicity in dogs and expand host range, being able to infect and cause disease in cats. Several studies indicated that the new type CPV-2c is becoming prevalent worldwide. Epidemiological survey indicates that and is often associated to severe disease in adult dogs and also in dogs that have completed the standard vaccination protocols, including vaccines against parvovirus infection...