Adaptación al español de la versión reducida del Cuestionario de Capital Psicológico (PCQ-12)

  1. José M. León-Pérez
  2. Mirko Antino
  3. José M. Léon-Rubio
International Journal of Social Psychology, Revista de Psicología Social

ISSN: 0213-4748 1579-3680

Year of publication: 2017

Volume: 32

Issue: 1

Pages: 196-213

Type: Article

More publications in: International Journal of Social Psychology, Revista de Psicología Social


Psychological capital (PsyCap) has been a topic of increasing interest in the last decade. However, there is a lack of validated instruments in Spanish to map PsyCap and its consequences for individuals’ well-being. Consequently, the goal of this study is to adapt the 12-item short version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-12) to the Spanish context by analysing its internal consistency and reliability, factor solution and external validity. Results indicated that the PCQ-12 exhibited good Cronbach’s alpha (.87) and omega coefficient (.93) values in a sample from a vehicle inspection company (n = 798). As expected, results also revealed that a second-order factor structure provided the best fit. Moreover, PsyCap is associated with increased job engagement (β = .579; R2adjusted = .333), decreased job burnout (β = −.409; R2adjusted = .166), and lower psychological distress (β = −.349; R2adjusted = .121) (all p < .01), which provided additional support for using the PCQ-12 in the Spanish context. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Bibliographic References

  • Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., & Luthans, F. (2011). Experimentally analyzing the impact of leader positivity on follower positivity and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 282–294. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.02.004 , ,
  • Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M., & Palmer, N. F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 17–28. doi:10.1037/a0016998 , , ,
  • Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22, 127–152. doi:10.1002/hrdq.v22.2 , ,
  • Azanza, G., Domínguez, A. J., Moriano, J. A., & Molero, F. J. (2014). Positive psychological capital. Validation of the Spanish version of the PCQ questionnaire. Anales de Psicología, 30, 294–301. ,
  • Bann, C. M., Kobau, R., Lewis, M. A., Zack, M. M., Luncheon, C., & Thompson, W. W. (2012). Development and psychometric evaluation of the public health surveillance well-being scale. Quality of Life Research, 21, 1031–1043. doi:10.1007/s11136-011-0002-9 , , ,
  • Dello Russo, S., & Stoykova, P. (2015). Psychological capital intervention (PCI): A replication and extension. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 26, 329–347. doi:10.1002/hrdq.2015.26.issue-3 , ,
  • Díaz, D., Blanco, A., & Durán, M. M. (2011). The structure of well-being: The empirical encounter of three traditions. Revista de Psicología Social, 26, 357–372. doi:10.1174/021347411797361266 , ,
  • Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Finney, S. J., & DiStefano, C. (2006). Non-normal and categorical data in structural equation modeling. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (pp. 269–314). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  • Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G., & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: A tutorial on parallel analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 191–205. doi:10.1177/1094428104263675 , ,
  • Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424–453. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.424 , ,
  • Karatepe, O. M., & Karadas, G. (2015). Do psychological capital and work engagement foster frontline employees’ satisfaction? A study in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27, 1254–1278. doi:10.1108/IJCHM-01-2014-0028 , ,
  • Krasikova, D. V., Lester, P. B., & Harms, P. D. (2015). Effects of psychological capital on mental health and substance abuse. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 22, 280–291. doi:10.1177/1548051815585853 , ,
  • Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541–572. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x , ,
  • Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., Sweetman, D. S., & Harms, P. D. (2013). Meeting the leadership challenge of employee well-being through relationship PsyCap and Health PsyCap. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20, 118–133. doi:10.1177/1548051812465893 , ,
  • Luthans, F., Youssef-Morgan, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2015). Psychological capital and beyond. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.-T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 11, 320–341. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2 , ,
  • Martinez-Corts, I., Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., & Boz, M. (2015). Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into nonwork: A daily diary study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 20, 326–337. doi:10.1037/a0038661 , , ,
  • Newman, A., Ucbasaran, D., Zhu, F., & Hirst, G. (2014). Psychological capital: A review and synthesis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35, S120–S138. doi:10.1002/job.1916 , ,
  • Rolstad, S., Adler, J., & Rydén, A. (2011). Response burden and questionnaire length: Is shorter better? A review and meta-analysis. Value in Health, 14, 1101–1108. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2011.06.003 , , ,
  • Sánchez-López, M. P., & Dresch, V. (2008). The 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12): Reliability, external validity and factor structure in the Spanish population. Psicothema, 20, 839–843. , ,
  • Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5 , , ,
  • Shirom, A., & Melamed, S. (2006). A comparison of the construct validity of two burnout measures in two groups of professionals. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 176–200. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.13.2.176 ,
  • Shirom, A., Toker, S., Berliner, S., Shapira, I., & Melamed, S. (2008). The effects of physical fitness and feeling vigorous on self-rated health. Health Psychology, 27, 567–575. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.27.5.567 , , ,
  • Siemsen, E., Roth, A., & Oliveira, P. (2010). Common method bias in regression models with linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Organizational Research Methods, 13, 456–476. doi:10.1177/1094428109351241 , ,
  • Siu, O. L. (2015). Psychological capital, work well-being, and work-life balance among Chinese employees. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 12, 170–181. doi:10.1027/1866-5888/a000092 , ,
  • Williams, P., Kern, M. L., & Waters, L. (2015). A longitudinal examination of the association between psychological capital, perception of organizational virtues and work happiness in school staff. Psychology of Well-Being, 5, 1–18. doi:10.1186/s13612-015-0032-0