Efecto del ejercicio físico durante el embarazo sobre la ganancia excesiva de peso y sus consecuencias

Supervised by:
  1. Rocío Montejo Rodríguez Co-director
  2. Rubén Barakat Carballo Co-director

Defence university: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

Fecha de defensa: 13 June 2011

  1. Javier Sampedro Molinuevo Chair
  2. Ignacio Refoyo Román Secretary
  3. María Luaces Méndez Committee member
  4. J.L. Pacheco del Cerro Committee member
  5. Marta Rodríguez Cabrero Committee member

Type: Thesis

Teseo: 311227 DIALNET


ABSTRACT BACKROUND: Pregnancy and delivery can condition significantly women's health. In particular, an excessive gain of weight during pregnancy constitutes a risk factor which may lead to (i) different alterations during pregnancy such as gestational diabetes or hypertension, (ii) foetus health problems (macrosomia), (iii) delivery complications (dystocia, prolonged labour and increased number of caesareans) and (iv) future health disorders for the woman (overweight, obesity and cardiovascular alterations). Furthermore, during pregnancy pelvic floor health problems, such as urinary incontinence (IU) may arise or worsen. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a moderate physical exercise program called Blooming Exercise Program (BEP) developed during pregnancy in order to control excessive maternal weight gain and its consequences. Additionally, other objectives of the study were to analyse the influence of BEP on urinary incontinence, on the other pregnancy outcomes (maternal and foetal) and on the perception of the pregnant's health. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled trial called has been conducted. 300 healthy pregnant women were recruited and divided into an intervention group (IG, n=100) and a control group (CG, n=200). The IG participated in BEP as from week 10-12 of gestation (at least 56 sessions through 22 weeks. 3 sessions per week). The CG did not participate in any supervised program addressed to pregnant women but received regular health care. Pregnancy outcomes regarding the mother and the new born, urinary incontinence and women's habits data were obtained and registered through initial interviews, medical records and two specific questionnaires on health and urinary incontinency (ICIQ-SF and King's). RESULTS: Significant differences have arisen in terms of maternal weight gain between the IG and the CG (11,525±3,553 kg vs. 13,729±4,131 kg, p<0.05, respectively). With respect to the risk factors linked to excessive weight gain (gestational diabetes, macrosomia and type of delivery) women belonging to the IG showed a great protection. In addition, urinary incontinence decreased significantly amongst women belonging to the IG (84.8% vs. 47.0%, p<0.05). Finally, women belonging to the IG have a more favourable perception of their health status than those belonging to the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: BEP intervention is an effective tool to prevent excessive maternal weight gain and to decrease its related risks. BEP intervention also prevents and reduces urinary incontinence and improves pregnant quality of life.