Design, Development and Validation of an Educational Methodology Using Immersive Augmented Reality for STEAM Education

  1. Santiago Delgado Rodríguez 1
  2. Silvia Carrascal Domínguez 2
  3. Rebeca García Fandiño 3
  1. 1 Universidad Nebrija

    Universidad Nebrija

    Madrid, España


  2. 2 Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    Madrid, España

    ROR 02p0gd045

  3. 3 Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

    Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

    Santiago de Compostela, España


NAER: Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research

ISSN: 2254-7339

Year of publication: 2023

Volume: 12

Issue: 1

Pages: 19-39

Type: Article

DOI: 10.7821/NAER.2023.1.1250 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openDialnet editor

More publications in: NAER: Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research


The main objective of this study is the design and validation of an educational methodological model based on the use of immersive technological resources (Augmented Reality – AR) to improve learning processes in secondary education science subjects (Biology and Geology). The process was developed based on three main quantitative studies: an exploratory study, a study of performance divided into three cases studies, and an attitudinal study. The information obtained was completed with a fourth qualitative study of the training of teachers who participate in educational technology. This research provides empirical evidence that allows validation of the methodological model developed to explain key concepts and to improve the level of motivation and acceptance of AR technology by students. The proposed model can induce improvements in educational processes in the field of STEAM when used with an immersive AR technological resource and an adapted digital evaluation system. It also demonstrates that teachers require specific training in connection with the creation and the adequate use of AR educational resources, and of digital evaluation systems as well. The results of this study have important implications for the field of education, demonstrating the potential of AR technology to improve learning outcomes and the need for teacher training in its use.

Funding information

Bibliographic References

  • Abad, F., Olea, J., Ponsoda, V. & García, C. (2011). Medición en ciencias sociales y de la salud. Síntesis.
  • Alalwan, N., Cheng, L., Al-Samarraie, H., Yousef, R., Alzahrani, A. & Sarsam, S. (2020). Challenges and Prospects of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Utilization among Primary School Teachers: A Developing Country Perspective. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 66(100876).
  • Alexander, B., Ashford-Rowe, K., Barajas-Murphy, N., Dobbin, G., Knott, J., Mccormack, M., ... Weber, N. (2019). EDUCAUSE Horizon Report 2019: Higher Education Edition. EDUCAUSE. Retrieved from
  • Allina, B. (2017). The development of STEAM educational policy to promote student creativity and social empowerment. Arts Education Policy Review, 119(2), 77–87.
  • Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Baillot, Y., Feiner, S., Julier, S. & Macintyre, B. (2001). Recent advances in augmented reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(6), 34–47.
  • Bacca, J., Baldiris, S., Fabregat, R., Graf, S. & Kinshuk, (2014). Augmented Reality Trends in Education: A Systematic Review of Research and Applications. Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 133–149.
  • Baragash, R., Al-Samarraie, H., Ibrahim, A. A. & Alfarraj, O. (2020). Augmented reality in special education: a meta-analysis of single-subject design studies. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(3), 382–397.
  • Barroso, J., Cabero, J., García, F., Calle, F., Gallego, Ó. & Casado, I. (2017). Diseño, producción, evaluación y utilización educativa de la Realidad Aumentada. Sevilla, Anadalucía, España. Retrieved from
  • Becker, A., Brown, S., Dahlstrom, M., Davis, E., Depaul, A., Diaz, K., Pomerantz, V. & J. (2018). NMC Horizon Report: 2018 Higher Education Edition. EDUCAUSE. Retrieved from
  • Berlinski, S. & Busso, M. (2017). Challenges in educational reform: An experiment on active learning in mathematics. Economics Letters (156), 172–175.
  • Blázquez, F., Alonso, L. & Yuste, R. (2017). La evaluación en la era digital (1st ed.). Síntesis.
  • Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain (2nd ed.). Addison Wesley Publishing Company.
  • Brown, M., Mccormack, M., Reeves, J., Brooks, C., Grajek, G., Alexander, B., Bali, M., Bulger, S., Dark, S., Engelbert, N., Gannon, K., Gauthier, A., Gibson, D., Gibson, R., Lundin, B., Veletsianos, G. & Weber, N. (2020). 2020 EDUCAUSE Horizon Report, Teaching and Learning Edition. Retrieved from
  • Bulman, G. & Fairlie, R. (2016). Technology and Education: Computers, Software, and the Internet. Handbook of the Economics of Education, 5, 239–280.
  • Cabero, J. & Barroso, J. (2016). The educational possibilities of Augmented Reality. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 5(1), 44–50.
  • Cabero, J., Barroso, J. & Gallego, Ó. (2018). La producción de objetos de aprendizaje en realidad aumentada por los estudiantes. Los estudiantes como prosumidores de información. Ciencia y Educación (11), 15–16.
  • Cabero-Almenara, J., Barroso-Osuna, J., Llorente-Cejudo, C. & Fernández, M. (2019). Educational Uses of Augmented Reality (AR): Experiences in Educational Science. Sustainability, 11(18).
  • Cabero-Almenara, J., Llorente-Cejudo, C. & Gutiérrez-Castillo, J. (2017). Evaluación por y desde los usuarios: objetos de aprendizaje con Realidad Aumentada. Revista De Educación a Distancia (RED), 17(53). Retrieved from
  • Cai, S., Chiang, F.-K., Sun, Y., Lin, C. & Lee, J. (2017). Applications of augmented reality-based natural interactive learning in magnetic field instruction. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(6), 778–791.
  • Cheng, K.-H. & Tsai, C.-C. (2013). Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(4), 449–462.
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.
  • Davis, F. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.
  • Ferguson, C. (2009). An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 532–538.
  • Fombona, J., Pascual, M. A. & Pérez, M. (2020). Analysis of the Educational Impact of M-Learning and Related Scientific Research. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 9(2), 167–180.
  • Gandolfi, E., Ferdig, R. & Immel, Z. (2018). Educational Opportunities for Augmented Reality. In J. Voogt, , G. Knezek, , R. Christensen, & y K.-W. Lai, (Eds.), Second Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education. (pp. 967–979). Springer. Retrieved from
  • Garzón, J. & Acevedo, J. (2019). Meta-analysis of the impact of Augmented Reality on students’ learning gains. Educational Research Review, 27, 244–260.
  • Garzón, J., Pavón, J. & Baldiris, S. (2019). Systematic review and meta analysis of augmented reality. Virtual Reality, 23, 447–459.
  • Haesen, S. & Van De Put, E. (2018). STEAM Education in Europe: A Comparative Analysis Report. EuroSTEAM. Retrieved from
  • Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B. & Anderson, R. (2018). Multivariate Data Analysis (8th ed.). Cengage Learning, EMEA.
  • Hattie, J. & Yates, G. (2014). Visible Learning and the Science of How We Learn. Routledge.
  • Huang, H.-M. & Liaw, S.-S. (2018). The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. An Analysis of Learners’ Intentions Toward Virtual Reality Learning Based on Constructivist and Technology Acceptance Approaches, 19(1).
  • Ibáñez, M., Serio, Á. D., Villarán, D. & Delgado, C. (2014). Experimenting with electromagnetism using augmented reality: Impact on flow student experience and educational effectiveness. Computers & Education, 71, 1–13.
  • Johnson, H., Mcnally, S., Rolfe, H., Ruiz-Valenzuela, J., Savage, R., Vousden, J. & Wood, C. (2019). Teaching Assistants, Computers and Classroom Management. Labour Economics, 58, 21–36.
  • Johnson, L., Becker, A., Cummins, S., Estrada, M., Freeman, V., Hall, A. & C. (2016). NMC Informe Horizon 2016 Edición Superior de Educación. The New Media Consortium.
  • Keller, J. (2010). Motivational Design for Learning and Performance. The ARCS Model Approach. Springer.
  • Laine, T., Nygren, E., Dirin, A. & Suk, H.-J. (2016). Science Spots AR: a platform for science learning games with augmented reality. Educational Technology Research and Development (64)507–531.
  • León, O. & Montero, I. (2015). Métodos de investigación en Psicología y Educación. Las tradiciones cuantitativa y cualitativa . McGraw-Hill.
  • Liu, E., Li, Y., Cai, S. & Li, X. (2018). The Effect of Augmented Reality in Solid Geometry Class on Students’ Learning Performance and Attitudes. In Auer, & Langmann, (Eds. )Smart Industry & Smart Education. REV 2018. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems. (Vol. 47, pp. 549-558). Springer.
  • Livingstone, S. (2012). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education. Oxford Review of Education, 38(1), 9–24.
  • López-Aguado, M. & Gutiérrez-Provecho, L. (2019). Cómo realizar e interpretar un análisis factorial exploratorio utilizando SPSS. REIRE Revista d'Innovació i Recerca en Educació, 12(2), 1–14.
  • Marques, M. & Pombo, L. (2020). Game-Based Mobile Learning with Augmented Reality: Are Teachers Ready to Adopt It. Project and Design Literacy as Cornerstones of Smart Education, 158, 207–218.
  • Marques, M. & Pombo, L. (2021). The Impact of Teacher Training Using Mobile Augmented Reality Games on Their Professional Development. Education Sciences (404)11.
  • Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M., En, M., Peters, Y. R. & Heraud, (2019). Augmented Reality in STEAM Education. In Encyclopedia of Educational Innovation. (pp. 1–6). Springer.
  • Moorhouse, N., Dieck, M. & Jung, T. (2019). An experiential view to children learning in museums with Augmented Reality. Museum Management and Curatorship, 34(4), 402–418.
  • Nieto, E. (2016). El papel de las tecnologías en el desarrollo de los aprendizajes y en la mejora del rendimiento académico. In M. Rodríguez, E. Nieto, & R. Sumozas, (Eds.), Las tecnologías en educación. Hacia la calidad educativa. (pp. 17-33). Síntesis.
  • Pardo, A. & San Martín, R. (2015). Análisis de datos en ciencias sociales y de la salud II.
  • Pellas, N., Fotaris, P., Kazanidis, I. & Wells, D. (2019). Augmenting the learning experience in primary and secondary school. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 329–346.
  • Perignat, E. & Katz-Buonincontro, J. (2019). STEAM in practice and research: An integrative literature review. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 31(43).
  • Sáez, J. (2017). Investigación educativa. Fundamentos teóricos, procesos y elementos prácticos. UNED.
  • Sahin, D. & Yilmaz, R. (2020). The effect of Augmented Reality Technology on middle school students. Computers & Education, 144(103710).
  • Scherer, R., Siddiq, F. & Tondeur, J. (2020). All the same or different? Revisiting measures of teachers' technology acceptance. Computers & Education, 143.
  • Serio, Á., Ibáñez, M. & Delgado, C. (2013). Impact of an augmented reality system on students' motivation for a visual art course. Computers & Education, 68, 586–596.
  • Sirakaya, M. & Sirakaya, D. (2018). Trends in Educational Augmented Reality Studies: A Systematic Review. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 6(2), 60–74.
  • Spiteri, M. & Rundgren, S.-N.-C. (2020). Literature Review on the Factors Affecting Primary Teachers’ Use of Digital Technology. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 25, 115–128.
  • Sulaiman, R., Al-Samarraie, H., Moody, L. & Zaqout, F. (2020). Augmented Reality and Functional Skills Acquisition Among Individuals with Special Needs: A Meta-Analysis of Group Design Studies. Journal of Special Education Technology, 37(1), 1–8.
  • Wu, H. K., Lee, S. Y., Chang, H. Y., & Liang, J. C. (2013). Current Status, Opportunities and Challenges of Augmented Reality in Education. Computers and Education, 62, 41–49.