La coordinación institucional durante la pandemia de COVID-19el caso de las residencias de personas mayores en España

  1. Manuel Pereira-Puga 1
  2. Jorge Hernández-Moreno 1
  3. Gibrán Cruz-Martínez 2
  1. 1 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

    Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

    Madrid, España


  2. 2 Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    Madrid, España

    ROR 02p0gd045

Política y sociedad

ISSN: 1130-8001 1988-3129

Year of publication: 2023

Issue Title: Monográfico: Políticas públicas y derechos humanos de las personas mayores en la Europa mediterránea y en América Latina y el Caribe: seguridad económica, salud y cuidados de larga duración; e88577

Volume: 60

Issue: 2

Type: Article

DOI: 10.5209/POSO.84774 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Política y sociedad


Cited by

  • Scopus Cited by: 1 (16-02-2024)
  • Web of Science Cited by: 0 (12-10-2023)
  • Dimensions Cited by: 1 (07-02-2024)

SCImago Journal Rank

(Indicator corresponding to the last year available on this portal, year 2022)
  • Year 2022
  • SJR Journal Impact: 0.24
  • Best Quartile: Q3
  • Area: Sociology and Political Science Quartile: Q3 Rank in area: 730/1381

Índice Dialnet de Revistas

(Indicator corresponding to the last year available on this portal, year 2022)
  • Year 2022
  • Journal Impact: 0.720
  • Field: CIENCIAS POLÍTICAS Quartile: C1 Rank in field: 2/73
  • Field: SOCIOLOGÍA Quartile: C1 Rank in field: 10/73


  • Social Sciences: B

Scopus CiteScore

(Indicator corresponding to the last year available on this portal, year 2022)
  • Year 2022
  • CiteScore of the Journal : 0.6
  • Area: Sociology and Political Science Percentile: 29

Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)

(Indicator corresponding to the last year available on this portal, year 2022)
  • Year 2022
  • Journal Citation Indicator (JCI): 0.17
  • Best Quartile: Q4
  • Area: POLITICAL SCIENCE Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 252/315


(Data updated as of 07-02-2024)
  • Total citations: 1
  • Recent citations (2 years): 1


The pandemic has posed a major challenge to federations and multilevel systems, due to the high degree of institutional coordination required to combat the virus. In the specific area of long-term care, the fragmentation between health and social services in many countries has made it difficult to respond to the threat posed to institutionalized older people. This article analyzes the response of Spain, a largely decentralized state, to the COVID-19 crisis in nursing homes during 2020, with a focus on institutional coordination mechanisms (intergovernmental and intersectoral). We aim to provide evidence on the drivers of and barriers to effective institutional management of the health crisis. Semi-structured interviews with key informants (n=30) and a desk study were conducted. The main results suggest negative effects of the incomplete knowledge among health policy makers about the nursing home sector, the insufficient degree of coordination between health and social services departments regions during the first weeks of the pandemic, the scarce number of intergovernmental coordination meetings in the social services department, the lack of preparedness, and data and information shortcomings. On the other hand, we observe a positive impact of the creation of formal ex novo mechanisms (commissions, committees) and the use of informal mechanisms (such as groups on social messaging platforms) for the exchange of information and political decision making. We conclude that there is a need for greater integration of objectives and strategies between the departments of health and social services in the socio-sanitary field both at national and subnational levels..

Bibliographic References

  • Abellán García, A., P. Aceituno Nieto, A. B. Castillo Belmonte, I. Fernández Morales, I. y D. Ramiro Fariñas (2021): “¿Hacia un registro de personas institucionalizadas?”, en Envejecimiento en Red. Disponible en: [Consulta: 7 de octubre de 2022]
  • Agerholm, J., J. Pulkki, N.K. Jensen, I. Keskimäki, I. Andersen, B. Burström, ... y A.E. Liljas (2023): “The organisation and responsibility for care for older people in Denmark, Finland and Sweden: outline and comparison of care systems”, Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 14034948221137128.
  • Aguilar-Hendrickson, M. y S. Sabatinelli (2014): “Changing labor markets and the place of local policies”, en C. Ranci, T. Brandsen y S. Sabatinelli, eds., Social vulnerability in European cities: The role of local welfare in times of crisis, Springer, pp. 67-102.
  • Applegate, W. B. y J. G. Ouslander (2020): “COVID-19 presents high risk to older persons”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(4), pp. 681-681
  • Barnett, M. L. y D. C. Grabowski (2020): “Nursing homes are ground zero for COVID-19 pandemic”, JAMA Health Forum, 1(3) pp. e200369 doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2020.0369
  • Barrera-Algarín, E., F. Estepa-Maestre, J. Sarasola-Sánchez-Serrano y J. C. Malagón-Siria (2021): “COVID-19 y personas mayores en residencias: impacto según el tipo de residencia”, Revista española de geriatría y gerontología, 56(4), pp. 208–217.
  • Benz, A. (2015): “Making Democracy Work in a Federal System”, German Politics, 24 (1), pp. 8–25.
  • Benz, A. (2016): Constitutional Policy in Multilevel Government: The Art of Keeping the Balance, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Benz, A. (2021): Policy Change and Innovation in Multilevel Governance, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Bogdanor, V., ed. (2005): Joined-Up Government, New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Bolleyer, N. (2009): Intergovernmental Cooperation: Rational Choices in Federal Systems and Beyond, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Bouckaert, G. y C. Pollitt (2004): Public Sector Reform, Oxford, Oxford.
  • Bouckaert, G., B. Guy Peters y K. Verhoest (2010): “Coordination: what is it and why should we have it?”, en Bouckaert, G., B. Guy Peters y K. Verhoest, eds., The coordination of public sector organizations: Shifting patterns of public management, London, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 13-33.
  • Bouckaert, G., B. Guy Peters y K. Verhoest (2022): “Policy design for policy coordination”, en B. Guy Peters y G. Fontaine, ed., Research Handbook of Policy Design, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Broschek, J. (2010): “Federalism and political change: Canada and Germany in historical-institutionalist perspective”, Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique, 43(1), pp. 1-24.
  • Broschek, J. (2015): “Pathways of Federal Reform: Australia, Canada, Germany, and Switzerland”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 45(1), pp. 51-76.
  • Cameron, D. y R. Simeon (2002): “Intergovernmental Relations in Canada: The Emergence of Collaborative Federalism”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 32(2), pp. 49–71.
  • Cameron, D. y R. Simeon (2002): “Intergovernmental relations in Canada: The emergence of collaborative federalism”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 32(2), pp. 49-72.
  • Carmona, A. (2021) “De la recentralización de competencias a su progresiva devolución a la Comunidades Autónomas durante el estado de alarma: Las fases de la desescalada”, en J. Tudela, ed., Estado Autonómico y COVID‐19: Un ensayo de valoración general, Zaragoza, Fundación Manuel Giménez Abad.
  • Casula, M. y S. Pazos-Vidal (2021): “Assessing the Multi-level Government Response to the COVID-19 Crisis: Italy and Spain Compared”, International Journal of Public Administration, 44 (1-12), pp. 994-1005
  • Cejudo, G. y C. Michel (2016): “Coherencia y políticas públicas. Metas, instrumentos y poblaciones objetivo”, Gestión y política pública, 25(1), pp. 3–31.
  • Champion, C. y G. Bonoli (2011): “Institutional fragmentation and coordination initiatives in western European welfare states”, Journal of European Social Policy, 21(4), pp. 323-334.
  • Chattopadhyay, R., F. Knüpling, D. Chebenova, L. Whittington y P. Gonzalez (2022): Federalism and the Response to COVID-19: A Comparative Analysis, London, Taylor & Francis.
  • Christie, A., M. P. Joye y R. L. Watts (2003): “Decentralization of the firm: theory and evidence”, Journal of Corporate Finance, 9(1), pp. 3-36.
  • Colino, C. (2012): “Las relaciones intergubernamentales en España y su práctica: un estado de la cuestión y algunas consideraciones en perspectiva comparada”, en C. Colino, S. León, M. Ferri y M. Salvador, La práctica de la cooperación intergubernamental en España, Madrid, Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, pp. 17-54.
  • Colino, C. (2017): “Las relaciones intergubernamentales”, en J. Olmeda, S. Parrado y C. Colino, Las administraciones públicas en España, Valencia, Tirant lo Blanch, pp. 237-277.
  • Colino, C. (2020): “Federal evolution and performance of the estado autonómico”, en D. Muro e I. Lago, eds., The Oxford handbook of Spanish politics, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 62–81.
  • Colino, C. (2021): Retos de la gobernanza multinivel y la coordinación del Estado autonómico: de la pandemia al futuro, Madrid, INAP.
  • Colino, C. y S. Parrado (2009): “Análisis de la práctica y la dinámica de los procesos formales e informales de las relaciones intergubernamentales”, en X. Arbos, C. Colino, M. García Morales y S. Parrado, eds., Relaciones Intergubernamentales en el Estado autonómico: la posición de los actores, Barcelona, Institut d’Estudis Autonómics, pp. 135–296.
  • Comas-Herrera, A., J. Zalakaín, E. Lemmon, D. Henderson, C. Litwin, A.T. Hsu, A.E. Schmidt, G. Arling, F. Kruse y J. L. Fernández (2020): “Mortality associated with COVID-19 in care homes: international evidence”, International long-term care policy network, CPEC-LSE, 14. Disponible en: [Consulta: 7 de octubre de 2022].
  • Crabtree, B. F. y W. L. Miller (1999): “In Doing qualitative research”, en B. F. Crabtree y W. L. Miller, eds., Researching practice settings: A case study approach, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, pp. 293–312.
  • Daly, M. (2020): “COVID‐19 and care homes in England: What happened and why?”, Social Policy & Administration, 54(7), pp. 985-998.
  • Daly, M., M. León, B. Pfau-Effinger, C. Ranci y T. Rostgaard (2022): “COVID-19 and policies for care homes in the first wave of the pandemic in European welfare states: Too little, too late?”, Journal of European social policy, 32(1), pp. 48-59.
  • Dardanelli, P., J. Kincaid, A. Fenna, A. Kaiser, A. Lecours y A. K. Singh (2019): “Conceptualizing, measuring, and theorizing dynamic de/centralization in federations”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 49(1), pp. 1-29.
  • De Biase, P. y S. Dougherty (2021): “Federalism and public health decentralisation in time of COVID‐19”, OECD Working Papers on fiscal federalism, 33, Paris, OECD Publishing.
  • Del Pino, E., F. J. Moreno-Fuentes, G. Cruz-Martínez, J. Hernández-Moreno, L. Moreno, M. Pereira-Puga y R. Perna (2020): “Informe Gestión Institucional y Organizativa de las Residencias de Personas Mayores y COVID-19: dificultades y aprendizajes”, Madrid, Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos.
  • Del Pino, E., F. J. Moreno Fuentes, G. Cruz-Martínez, J. Hernández-Moreno, L. Moreno, M. Pereira-Puga y R. Perna (2021): “Governmental response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Long-Term Care residences for older people: preparedness, responses and challenges for the future: Spain”, MC COVID-19 working paper, 13/2021
  • Elazar, D. J. (1987): Exploring federalism, Alabama, University of Alabama Press.
  • Erkoreka, M. y J. Hernando‐Pérez (2023): “Decentralization: A handicap in fighting the COVID‐19 pandemic? The response of the regional governments in Spain”, Public Administration and Development, 43(2), pp. 129-140.
  • European Commission (2015): 2015 Ageing Report. Economic and Budgetary projections for the 28 EU Member States (2013-2060), Brussels, European Commission.
  • Galán, A. y E. Roig (2020): “Estado Autonómico y Crisis Covid-19: intervención estatal y relaciones intergubernamentales ante la pandemia". Istituzioni del Federalismo, Numero Speciale, pp. 39-65.
  • García Morales, M. J., J. A. Montilla Martos y X. Arbós Marín (2006): Las relaciones intergubernamentales en el Estado autonómico, Madrid, CEPC.
  • Gauvin, J. P. y M. Papillon (2020): “Intergovernmental Relations in Canada: Still an Exclusive Club?”, en A. G. Gagnon y G. Laforest, eds., Canadian Federalism and Its Future: Actors and Institutions, Montreal y Kingston, McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  • Grau-Creus, M. y M. Sanjaume-Calvet (2020): “Loyalty does not mean submission’: On the COVID-19 measures and the apparently surprising features of the Spanish territorial model”, UACES Territorial Politics Blog, 26 de mayo, Disponible en: [Consulta: 6 de abril de 2021].
  • Guy Peters, B. (1998): “Managing horizontal government: The politics of coordination”, Research paper no. 21, Ottawa, Canadian Centre for Management Development
  • Guy Peters, B. (2005): The Search for Coordination and Control: Horizontal Management in Government, Lawrence, University Press of Kansas.
  • Guy Peters, B. (2015): Pursuing Horizontal Management: The Politics of Public Sector Coordination, Lawrence, University Press of Kansas.
  • Guy Peters, B. (2018): “The challenge of policy coordination”, Policy design and practice, 1(1), pp. 1-11.
  • Hegele, Y. y J. Schnabel (2021): “Federalism and the management of the COVID-19 crisis: centralisation, decentralisation and (non-) coordination”, West European Politics, 44(5-6), pp. 1052-1076.
  • Hegele, Y. y N. Behnke (2017): “Horizontal coordination in cooperative federalism: The purpose of ministerial conferences in Germany”, Regional & Federal Studies, 27(5), pp. 529-548.
  • Hernández-Moreno, J. (2021): "La gestión institucional de la crisis de COVID-19: coordinación intergubernamental e intersectorial en las políticas de Sanidad y Servicios Sociales", en Colino, C. (ed.) Retos de la gobernanza multinivel y la coordinación en el Estado autonómico: de la pandemia al futuro, Madrid: INAP.
  • Hernández-Moreno, J. (2023): Trabajadores del cuidado en España en la era post Covid-19: continuidad y reforma en las condiciones laborales y la calidad en el empleo. Documentos de trabajo y justicia social. Fundación Friedrich Ebert. Disponible en:
  • Hernández-Moreno, J. y C. Ares Castro-Conde (2023): Gobernanza y Administraciones territoriales para la próxima generación, Colección Administración Local y Autonómica, INAP, Madrid.
  • Hernández-Moreno, J. y M. Pereira-Puga (2021): "En primera línea contra el coronavirus: el trabajo de cuidados de larga duración a personas mayores en España”, Laboratorio de la Fundación Alternativas, Documento de Trabajo, pp. 208-2021.
  • Hernández-Moreno, J., M. Pereira-Puga, y G. Cruz-Martínez (2023): “COVID-19 and Nursing Homes in Decentralized Spain: How Governance and Public Policies Influence Working Conditions and Organizational Responses to the Crisis”, Administration & Society, 00953997231187075.
  • Hood, C. (2005): “The idea of joined-up government: A historical perspective”, en V. Bogdanor, ed., Joinedup government, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Hooghe, L. y G. Marks (2020): “A postfunctionalist theory of multilevel governance”, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 22(4), pp. 820-826.
  • Hooghe, L., G. Marks, A. H. Schakel, S. C. Osterkatz, S. Niedzwiecki y S. Shair-Rosenfield (2016): Measuring regional authority: A postfunctionalist theory of governance, Volume I, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Hooghe, L., y G. Marks (2013): “Beyond federalism: Estimating and explaining the territorial structure of government”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 43(2), pp. 179-204.
  • IMSERSO (2005): Atención a las personas en situación de dependencia en España. Libro Blanco, Madrid.
  • IMSERSO (2011): Libro Blanco de la Coordinación Sociosanitaria en España, Ministerio de Sanidad, Política Social e Igualdad. Disponible en: coorsociosanitaria/index.htm [Consulta: 7 de octubre de 2022]
  • Kapucu, N., T. Arslan y M. L. Collins (2010): “Examining intergovernmental and interorganizational response to catastrophic disasters: Toward a network-centered approach”, Administration & Society, 42, pp. 222–247.
  • Kessa, R., A. A. Sadiq y J. Yeo (2021): “The Importance of Vertical and Horizontal Collaboration: United States’ Response to COVID-19 Pandemic”, Chinese Public Administration Review, 12(1), pp. 61–71
  • King P. (1982): Federalism and Federation, London, Croom Helm.
  • Kölling, M. (2020): “Federalism and the COVID-19 crisis: A perspective from Spain”, Revista Cuadernos Manuel Giménez Abad, 19, pp. 41-43.
  • Lago, I. (2021): Handbook on Decentralization, Devolution and the State, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Leichsenring, K. (2004): “Developing integrated health and social care services for older persons in Europe”, International journal of integrated care, 4, pp. e10 doi: 10.5334/ijic.107
  • Leichsenring, K., J. Bellings y H. Nies (2013): “Long-term care in Europe-Improving policy and practice”, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan.
  • León, S. (2020): “De gestión centralizada a gestión autonómica de la pandemia: desafíos y oportunidades”, EsadeEcPol Insight. Disponible en: [Consulta: 20 de mayo de 2021].
  • León, S. M. Ferrín Pereira (2011): “Intergovernmental cooperation in a decentralised system: The sectoral conferences in Spain”, South European Society and Politics, 16(4), pp. 513-532.
  • Liu, Z., J. Guo, W. Zhong y T. Gui (2021): “Multi-level governance, policy coordination and subnational responses to COVID-19: Comparing China and the US”, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 23(2), pp. 204-218.
  • Mac Carthaigh, M. y A. Molenveld (2018): “Coordination in Europe” en E. Ongaro y S. van Thiel, eds., The Palgrave Handbook of Public Administration and Management in Europe, Londres, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 653-670.
  • Maggetti, M. y P. Trein (2022): “Policy integration, problem-solving, and the coronavirus disease crisis: lessons for policy design”, Policy and Society, 41(1), pp. 53-67.
  • Marbán Gallego, V. (2020): “Los (Des)cuidados de larga duración en España: ¿Reforma o Perfeccionamiento del SAAD?”, en F. J. Moreno Fuentes y E. Del Pino, eds., Las Transformaciones Territoriales Y Sociales Del Estado En La Edad Digital, Madrid, Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, pp. 331-354.
  • Marks, G., y L. Hooghe (2004): “Contrasting visions of multi-level governance”, en I. Bache y M. Flinders, eds., Multi-level governance, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 15-30.
  • Mattei, P. y E. Del Pino (2021): “Coordination and Health Policy Responses to the First Wave of COVID-19 in Italy and Spain”, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 23(2), pp. 274-281 DOI: 10.1080/13876988.2021.1878886
  • Mawson, J. y S. Hall (2013): “Joining It Up Locally? Area Regeneration and Holistic Government in England”, Regional Studies, 34(1), pp. 67–74.
  • Menéndez-Colino, R., F. Argentina, A. M. de Miguel, M. B. Marqués, B. C. Jiménez, C. F. Poblete, T. Alarcón, F. J. M. Peromingo y J. I. González-Montalvo (2021): “La Geriatría de Enlace con residencias en la época de la COVID-19. Un nuevo modelo de coordinación que ha llegado para quedarse”, Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, 56(3), pp. 157-165.
  • Migone, A. R. (2020): "Trust, but Customize: Federalism’s Impact on the Canadian COVID-19 Response", Policy and Society, 39(3), pp. 382–402.
  • Ministerio de Derechos Sociales y Agenda 2030 (2020): “Información sobre los mecanismos de coordinación adoptados en cada territorio entre los servicios sociales y el sistema sanitario para asegurar la atención médica en los centros sociales residenciales en casos de covid-19”, 7 de septiembre. Disponible en: AA..pdf [Consulta: 10 de octubre de 2022].
  • Ministerio de Política Territorial y Función Pública (2022): “Reuniones de Conferencias Sectoriales”. Disponible en: [Consulta: 10 de octubre de 2022].
  • Moreno Fuentes, F. J. (2015): “Retos y reformas de las políticas de cuidado de larga duración en España”, en F. J. Moreno Fuentes y E. Del Pino, eds., Desafíos del Estado del Bienestar en Noruega y España. Nuevas políticas para atender a nuevos riesgos sociales, Madrid, Tecnos, pp. 55-80.
  • Navarro, C. y F. Velasco (2022): “From centralisation to new ways of multi-level coordination: Spain’s intergovernmental response to the COVID-19 pandemic”, Local Government Studies, 48(2), pp. 191-210.
  • OCDE (2020): The territorial impact of COVID-19: Managing the crisis across levels of government, OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19). Disponible en: [Consulta: 7 de octubre de 2022]
  • Oliva, J. y L. M. P. Longobardo (2022): “Impacto de la COVID-19 en la atención sociosanitaria: el caso de las residencias. Informe SESPAS 2022”, Gaceta Sanitaria, 36, pp. S56-S60.
  • OMS (2020): “Preventing and managing COVID-19 across long-term care services”, Policy brief, 24 July. Disponible en: [Consulta: 7 de octubre de 2022]
  • Painter, M. (2003): “Intergovernmental relations and public administration: Introduction”, en B. Guy Peters y J. Pierre, eds., Handbook of public administration, Wiltshire, SAGE Publications, pp. 591-593.
  • Paquet, M. y R. Schertzer (2020): “COVID-19 as a complex intergovernmental problem”, Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique, 53(2), pp. 343-347. DOI: doi:10.1017/S0008423920000281
  • Parrado, S. y D. Galli (2021): “Intergovernmental veto points in crisis management: Italy and Spain facing the COVID-19 pandemic”, International Review of Administrative Science, 87(3), 576–592.
  • Pavolini, E. y C. Ranci (2008): “Restructuring the welfare state: reforms in long-term care in Western European countries”, Journal of European Social Policy, 18(3), pp. 246-259.
  • Pierson, P. y S. Leibfried (1995): European social policy: between fragmentation and integration, Washington D.C., The Brookingn Institution.
  • Poirier, J. C. Saunders y J. Kincaid (2015): Intergovernmental Relations in Federal Systems: Comparative Structures and Dynamics, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Porcel-Gálvez, A. M., B. Badanta, S. Barrientos-Trigo y M. Lima-Serrano (2021): “Personas mayores, dependencia y vulnerabilidad en la pandemia por coronavirus: emergencia de una integración social y sanitaria”, Enfermería Clínica, 31, pp. S18-s23.
  • Ramos Gallarín, J. A. y M. Alda Fernández (2021): “Las relaciones de cooperación entre comunidades autónomas: un balance centrado en el periodo 2004-2020” en C. Colino, ed., Retos de la gobernanza multinivel y la coordinación del Estado autonómico: de la pandemia al futuro, Madrid, Instituto Nacional de Administración Pública (INAP), pp. 131-148.
  • Ranci, C. y E. Pavolini (2015): “Not all that glitters is gold: Long-term care reforms in the last two decades in Europe”, Journal of European Social Policy, 25(3), pp. 270–285.
  • Riker, W. (1964): Federalism: Origin, Operation, Significance, Boston, Little Brown.
  • Rodríguez Cabrero, G. (2015): “Tendencias recientes en la protección social de la dependencia en la UE”, Documentación Social, 177, pp. 19-40.
  • Rozell, M. J. y C. Wilcox (2020): “Federalism in a Time of Plague: How Federal Systems Cope With Pandemic”, American Review of Public Administration, 50 (6/7), pp. 519-525.
  • Salvador, M. (2015): “Los servicios sociales como paradigma de los cambios operados en el sistema competencial al amparo de la Ley 27/2013, de Racionalización y Sostenibilidad de la Administración Local”, en J. Tudela y M. Kölling, eds., Costes y beneficios de la descentralización en un contexto de crisis: el caso español, Zaragoza, Fundación Manuel Jiménez Abad, pp. 105-145.
  • Schaffrin, A., S. Sewerin y S. Seubert (2015): “Toward a Comparative Measure of Climate Policy Output”, Policy Studies Journal, 43(2), pp. 257–82.
  • Scharpf, F. W. (1997): “Introduction: the problem-solving capacity of multi-level governance”, Journal of European public policy, 4(4), pp. 520-538.
  • Schnabel, J y Y. Hegele (2021): “Explaining Intergovernmental Coordination during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Responses in Australia, Canada, Germany, and Switzerland”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 51(4), pp 537–569
  • Schnabel, J. (2015): “The intergovernmental safeguard’s capacity to preven opportunism: evidence from eight federations”, en ECPR general conference.
  • Schnabel, J. (2020): Managing interdependencies in federal systems: Intergovernmental councils and the making of public policy., Cham, Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Schnabel, J. y S. Mueller (2017): “Vertical influence or Horizontal Coordination? The Purpose of Intergovernmental Councils in Switzerland”, Regional & Federal Studies, 27 (5), pp. 549- 572.
  • Schnabel, J., R. Freiburghaus y Y. Hegele (2022): “Crisis management in federal states: the role of peak intergovernmental councils in Germany and Switzerland during the COVID-19 Pandemic”, Zeitschrift für Public Policy, Recht und Management, 15(1), pp. 7-8.
  • Simmons, J. M. (2004): “Securing the Threads of Co-operation in the Tapestry of Intergovernmental Relations: Does the Institutionalization of Ministerial Conferences Matter?”, en J. P. Meekison, H. Telford y H. Lazar, eds., Reconsidering the Institutions of Canadian Federalism. The State of the Federation 2002, Montreal & Kingston, McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 425-462.
  • Steinberg, C. W. y D. K. Hamilton (2018): Intergovernmental relations in transition: Reflections and directions, New York, Routledge.
  • Steytler, N. (2022): Comparative Federalism and COVID-19. Combating the Pandemic, Nueva York, Routledge.
  • Tajadura, J. (2010): El principio de cooperación en el Estado Autonómico. El Estado autonómico como Estado federal cooperativo, Granada, Comares.
  • Termeer, C. J., A. Dewulf y R. Biesbroek (2019): “A critical assessment of the wicked problem concept: relevance and usefulness for policy science and practice”, Policy and Society, 38(2), pp. 167-179. DOI: 10.1080/14494035.2019.1617971
  • Trapero, E. S. y I. M. Sanz (2020): “Los convenios de colaboración y acuerdos de cooperación entre Comunidades Autónomas. Pensar y actuar sobre nuevos territories”, Ciudades, (23), pp. 95-114.
  • Trein, P. (2017): “Coevolution of policy sectors: A comparative analysis of healthcare and public health”, Public Administration, 95(3), pp. 744–758.
  • Trein, P. y M. Maggetti (2020): “Patterns of policy integration and administrative coordination reforms: A comparative empirical analysis”, Public Administration Review, 80(2), pp. 198–208.
  • Trein, P., I. Meyer y M. Maggetti (2019): “The integration and coordination of public policies: A systematic comparative review”, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 21(4), pp. 332-349.
  • Tudela, J. (2020): “Reflexiones territoriales (federales) alrededor de la crisis COVID-19”, Agenda Pública, El País, 23 de mayo. Disponible en: [Consulta: el 13 de marzo de 2021]
  • University Press.
  • Vicente Fuentes, F. (2020): “Social and health care coordination: Towards a new culture of care”, Enfermería Clínica, 30(5), pp. 291–294. doi: 10.1016/j.enfcle.2020.09.001.
  • Vilà, T. (2015): “Perspectiva jurídica y de políticas en el SAAD”, Documentación Social, 177, pp. 61-79.
  • Wallner, J. (2017): “Cooperation without the Leviathan: Intergovernmental Policy making in Canadian Education”. Regional and Federal Studies, 27 (4), pp. 417–40.
  • Wang H., T. Li, P. Barbarino, S. Gauthier, H. Brodaty, J. Molinuevo, H. Xie, Y. Sun, E. Wu, Y. Tang, W. Weidner y X. Yu (2020): “Dementia care during COVID-19”, Lancet, 395(10231), pp. 1190–1191.
  • Watts, R. L. (1994): Federal Systems and Accommodation of Distinct Groups: A Comparative Survey of Institutional Arrangements, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.
  • Watts, R. L. (1999): Comparing Federal Systems, Kingston, Institute of Intergovernmental Relations.
  • Watts, R. L. (2005): “Comparing forms of federal partnerships”, en D. Karmis y W. Norman, eds., Theories of federalism: A reader, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 233-253.
  • Watts, R. L. (2016): “Comparing federal political systems”, en A, G. Gagnon y S. Keil, Understanding federalism and federation, New York, Routledge, pp. 11-30.
  • Yin R. K. (2014): Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.
  • Zalakaín, J., V. Davey y A. Suárez-González (2020): “The COVID-19 on users of Long-Term Care services in Spain”, International Long-Term Care Policy Network, CPEC-LSE, Barcelona, Catalonia.
  • Zingerli, C., K. Bisang y W. Zimmermann (2004): Towards policy integration: experiences with intersectoral coordination in international and national forest policy, en Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Berlin, 3 December. Disponible en: [Consulta: 7 de octubre de 2022]
  • Zurbriggen, C. y M. González (2014): “Innovación y co-creación. Nuevos desafíos para las políticas públicas”, Revista de Gestión Pública, 3(2), pp. 329-361.